Higher education students’ achievement emotions and their antecedents in e-learning amid COVID-19 pandemic: a multi-country survey

Daniela Raccanello, Roxana Balbontín-Alvarado, Denilson da Silva Bezerra, Roberto Burro, Maria Cheraghi, Beata Dobrowolska, Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe, MoezAlIslam Ezzat Faris, Thais França, Belinka González-Fernández, Rob Hall, Fany Inasius, Sujita Kumar Kar, Damijana Keržič, Kornélia Lazányi, Florin Lazăr, Juan D. Machin-Mastromatteo, João Marôco, Bertil P. Marques, Oliva Mejía-RodríguezSilvia Mariela Méndez Prado, Alpana Mishra, Cristina Mollica, Silvana G. Navarro Jiménez, Alka Obadić, Md Mamun-ur-Rashid, Dejan Ravšelj, Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić, Nina Tomaževič, Chinaza Uleanya, Lan Umek, Giada Vicentini, Özlem Yorulmaz, Ana Maria Zamfir, Aleksander Aristovnik*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    32 Citations (Scopus)
    44 Downloads (Pure)


    The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a wide range of negative consequences for higher education students. We explored the generalizability of the control-value theory of achievement emotions for e-learning, focusing on their antecedents. We involved 17019 higher education students from 13 countries, who completed an online survey during the first wave of the pandemic. A structural equation model revealed that proximal antecedents (e-learning self-efficacy, computer self-efficacy) mediated the relation between environmental antecedents (cognitive and motivational quality of the task) and positive and negative achievement emotions, with some exceptions. The model was invariant across country, area of study, and gender. The rates of achievement emotions varied according to these same factors. Beyond their theoretical relevance, these findings could be the basis for policy recommendations to support stakeholders in coping with the challenges of e-learning and the current and future sequelae of the pandemic.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number101629
    Pages (from-to)1-10
    Number of pages10
    JournalLearning and Instruction
    Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022

    Bibliographical note

    Copyright the Author(s) 2022. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


    • COVID-19
    • achievement emotions
    • higher education students
    • e-learning
    • self-efficacy


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