Hirshfeld surface investigation of structure-directing interactions within dipicolinic acid derivatives

Adam D. Martin, Joshua Britton, Timothy L. Easun, Alexander J. Blake, William Lewis, Martin Schröder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


Six compounds based on dipicolinic acid esters have been synthesized and Hirshfeld surfaces used to investigate the structure-directing effects of functional groups in controlling their solid-state behavior. Compounds 1−4 are 4-bromo dipicolinic acid esters substituted with methyl, ethyl, propyl, and benzyl groups, respectively. The main structuredirecting motif within 1−3 is a pairwise O···H interaction involving two carbonyl oxygen atoms and two aromatic H atoms. The introduction of bulky benzyl groups in 4 forces a significant change in the position of this interaction. Compounds 2 and 4 were used in Suzuki coupling reactions to prepare extended analogues 5 and 6, respectively, and their solid-state behavior was also studied using Hirshfeld surfaces. Extension of these dipicolinic acid esters results in the complete loss of the pairwise O···H interaction in 5, where the dominant structure-directing motifs are π-based interactions. However, the pairwise O···H interaction reappears for the more flexible 6, demonstrating control of the solid-state structure of these dipicolinic acid derivatives through the choice of functional groups.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1697-1706
Number of pages10
JournalCrystal Growth and Design
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


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