How Australia's middle power identity has informed its behaviour at the BBNJ negotiations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The negotiations for a new international legally binding instrument to conserve and sustainably utilise marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) have been the subject of much analysis and commentary since their commencement. Yet there is still relatively little consideration of what can be learnt about state behaviour from the BBNJ negotiations. This article engages in an analysis of Australia’s behaviour as a case study of the often-overlooked category of middle power states. Hence, this article is envisioned as an exploratory study into middle powers in international environmental negotiations, with the goal of prompting further exploration of both the BBNJ negotiations specifically, as well as the role of different kinds of states in the creation of international environmental law. The overarching question being asked here is “How has Australia’s middle power identity informed its behaviour at the BBNJ negotiations?”
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-74
Number of pages33
JournalChinese Journal of Environmental Law
Issue number1
Early online date21 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • Australia
  • middle power
  • biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction
  • negotiations


Dive into the research topics of 'How Australia's middle power identity has informed its behaviour at the BBNJ negotiations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this