How does rapid automatized naming influence orthographic knowledge?

Dalia Martinez, George K. Georgiou*, Tomohiro Inoue, Alberto Falcón, Rauno Parrila

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is a strong predictor of reading fluency across languages, and some researchers have attributed this to the contribution of RAN to the development of orthographic knowledge, which is predictive of reading fluency. However, to date, it remains unclear whether RAN (alphanumeric and nonalphanumeric) predicts orthographic knowledge (OK) and what skills may mediate their relation. To examine the RAN–OK relations, we assessed 114 Grade 3 Spanish-speaking Mexican children (58 girls; Mage = 7.9 years, SD = 0.3) on RAN (objects and digits), orthographic knowledge (lexical and sublexical; accuracy and response time), speed of processing, multi-element processing, phonemic awareness, and reading fluency. Path analyses showed first that, OK (both lexical and sublexical) partly mediated the effects of RAN on reading fluency. Second, multiple mediation analyses showed an indirect effect of both RAN tasks on lexical and sublexical OK through phonological awareness. In view of Ehri's amalgamation hypothesis and Share's self-teaching hypothesis, our findings suggest that RAN may reflect, in part, the speed with which the phonological representations of letters are accessed and retrieved, which subsequently influences how quickly orthographic representations can be formed and accessed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105064
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Experimental Child Psychology
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • orthographic knowledge (OK)
  • rapid automatized naming (RAN)
  • reading fluency
  • phonemic awareness
  • Spanish
  • multi-element processing

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