How fair can employers be?

Ali S. Hadi, Brian Jersky

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    In this article we examine three concepts of fairness in employment decisions. Two of these concepts are widely known in the literature as “Fairness 1” and “Fairness 2. The third concept, which we refer to as “Fairness 0”, is defined and introduced here. Fairness 0 applies to the hiring stage, whereas Fairness 1 and Fairness 2 apply to the placement or promotion stages of employment. Our results have important policy implications. We show that the three concepts of fairness can only rarely be achieved simultaneously.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)4545-4558
    Number of pages14
    JournalCommunications in Statistics - Theory and Methods
    Issue number12
    Publication statusPublished - 1990


    • direct regression
    • employment discrimination
    • fairness 0
    • fairness 1
    • fairness 2
    • reverse regression
    • shunting


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