How movement is assessed matters. Changes in forward bending during cognitive functional therapy treatment for people with chronic low back pain

Ruth Chang, Anne Smith, Peter Kent, Peter O'Sullivan, Mark Hancock, Amity Campbell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate forward bending range of motion (ROM) and velocity in patients with low back pain who were receiving Cognitive Functional Therapy and determine (1) the amount and timing of change occurring at the trunk and pelvis (global angles), and lumbar spine (intersensor angle), and (2a) differences in changes between participants with and without sensor biofeedback, and (2b) participants with and without baseline movement limitation. DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-one participants attended Cognitive Functional Therapy treatment and wore sensors at the T12 and S2 spine levels while performing forward bending. Measures included ROM and velocity from both sensors, and the intersensor angle. Regression models estimated changes over time. Time-group interactions tested participants who were subgrouped by treatment and baseline movement. RESULTS: During the 90-day evaluation period, most change occurred in the first 21 days. Changes in ROM observed at T12 (3.3°, 95% CI: 1.0°, 5.5°; P = .001) and S2 (3.3°, 95% CI: 1.2°, 5.4°; P = .002) were similar. Intersensor angle remained similar (0.2°, 95% CI: -2.0°, -1.6°; P = .81). Velocity measured at T12 and S2, and the intersensor angle increased 8.5°/s (95% CI: 6.7°/s, 10.3°/s; P<.0001), 5.3°/s (95% CI: 4.0°/s, 6.5°/s; P<.0001), and 3.4°/s (95% CI: 2.4°/s, 4.5°/s; P<.0001), respectively, for 0 to 21 days. There were minimal differences in participants who received biofeedback. Larger increases occurred in participants with restricted ROM and slower velocity at baseline. CONCLUSION: During 0 to 21 days, we observed changes at the trunk and pelvis (especially in people with reduced ROM), and velocity changes across all measures (especially in people with baseline movement limitations). Biofeedback did not augment the changes. When targeting forward bending in people with low back pain, clinicians should monitor changes in velocity and global ROM. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2024;54(3):1-13. Epub 19 December 2023. doi:10.2519/jospt.2023.12023.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)209-221
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Volume54
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2024

Keywords

  • bending
  • kinematics
  • low back pain
  • sensors

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