Outsourcing helps relocate data from the cyber-physical system (CPS) for efficient storage at low cost. Current server-based outsourcing mainly focuses on the benefits of servers. This cannot attract users well, as their security, efficiency, and economy are not guaranteed. To solve with this issue, a hybrid outsourcing model that exploits both cloud server and edge devices to store data is needed. Meanwhile, the requirements of security and efficiency are different under specific scenarios. There is a lack of a comprehensive solution that considers all of the above issues. In this work, we overcome the above issues by proposing the first hybrid user-centric data outsourcing (HUCDO) scheme. It allows users to outsource data securely, efficiently, and economically via different CPSs. Brielly, our contributions consist of theories, implementations, and evaluations. Our theories include the first homomorphic collision-resistant chameleon hash (HCCH) and homomorphic designated-receiver signcryption (HDRS). As implementations, we instantiate how to use our proposals to outsource small- or large-scale data through distinct CPS, respectively. Additionally, a blockchain with proof-of-discrete-logarithm (B-PoDL) is instantiated to help improve our performance. Last, as demonstrated by our evaluations, our proposals are secure, efficient, and economic for users to implement while outsourcing their data via CPSs.
- Chameleon hash
- hybrid data outsourcing