Human regulatory macrophages are potent in suppression of the xenoimmune response via indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-involved mechanism(s)

Fei Guo, Min Hu, Dandan Huang, Yuanfei Zhao, Benjamin Heng, Gilles Guillemin, Chai K. Lim, Wayne J. Hawthorne, Shounan Yi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: For xenotransplantation to truly succeed, we must develop immunomodulatory strategies to suppress the xenoimmune response but by minimizing immunosuppression over the long term. Regulatory macrophages (Mreg) have been shown to suppress polyclonal T-cell proliferation in vitro and prolong allograft survival in vivo. However, the question of whether they are capable of suppressing xenoimmune responses remains unknown. This study assessed the potential of human Mreg to be used as an effective immunomodulatory method in xenotransplantation. Methods: CD14+ monocytes selected from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) for 7 days with IFN-γ added at day 6 for Mreg induction. Mreg phenotyping was performed by flow cytometric analysis, and the in vitro suppressive function was assessed by mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) using irradiated pig PBMC as the xenogeneic stimulator cells, human PBMC as responder cells, and autologous Mreg as suppressor cells. To assess mRNA expression of Mreg functional molecules indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TGF-β were measured by real-time PCR. Supernatants were collected from the MLR cultures for IDO activity assay by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of the IDO inhibitor 1-D/L-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), iNOS inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA), and anti-IFN-γ or anti-TGF-β monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment on Mreg suppressive capacity were tested from the supernatants of the MLR assays. Results: We demonstrated that induced Mreg with a phenotype of CD14lowCD16-/lowCD80lowCD83-/lowCD86+/hiHLA-DR+/hi were capable of suppressing proliferating human PBMC, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, even at a higher responder:Mreg ratio of 32:1 in a pig-human xenogeneic MLR. The strong suppressive potency of Mreg was further correlated with their upregulated IDO expression and activity. The IDO upregulation of Mreg was associated with an increased production of IFN-γ, an IDO stimulator, by xenoreactive responder cells in the xenogeneic MLR. While no effect on Mreg suppressive potency was detected by addition of the iNOS inhibitor L-NMMA or anti-TGF-β mAb into the MLR assays, inhibition of IDO activity by neutralizing IFN-γ or by IDO inhibitor 1-MT substantially impaired the capacity of Mreg to suppress the xenogeneic response, indicating the importance of upregulated IDO activity in Mreg-mediated suppression of the xenogeneic response in vitro. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that human Mreg are capable of suppressing the xenoimmune response in vitro via IDO-involved mechanism(s), suggesting their potential role as an effective immunomodulatory tool in xenotransplantation.

LanguageEnglish
Article numbere12326
Pages1-11
Number of pages11
JournalXenotransplantation
Volume24
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2017

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Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase
Macrophages
Mixed Lymphocyte Culture Test
Heterologous Transplantation
Blood Cells
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Transforming Growth Factor beta
omega-N-Methylarginine
Swine
Monoclonal Antibodies
T-Lymphocytes
Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
Interleukin-10
Immunosuppression
Allografts
Arginine
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Monocytes
Up-Regulation
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

Cite this

@article{41bc4bdf99614db998a9811b52a4b7ac,
title = "Human regulatory macrophages are potent in suppression of the xenoimmune response via indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-involved mechanism(s)",
abstract = "Background: For xenotransplantation to truly succeed, we must develop immunomodulatory strategies to suppress the xenoimmune response but by minimizing immunosuppression over the long term. Regulatory macrophages (Mreg) have been shown to suppress polyclonal T-cell proliferation in vitro and prolong allograft survival in vivo. However, the question of whether they are capable of suppressing xenoimmune responses remains unknown. This study assessed the potential of human Mreg to be used as an effective immunomodulatory method in xenotransplantation. Methods: CD14+ monocytes selected from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) for 7 days with IFN-γ added at day 6 for Mreg induction. Mreg phenotyping was performed by flow cytometric analysis, and the in vitro suppressive function was assessed by mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) using irradiated pig PBMC as the xenogeneic stimulator cells, human PBMC as responder cells, and autologous Mreg as suppressor cells. To assess mRNA expression of Mreg functional molecules indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TGF-β were measured by real-time PCR. Supernatants were collected from the MLR cultures for IDO activity assay by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of the IDO inhibitor 1-D/L-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), iNOS inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA), and anti-IFN-γ or anti-TGF-β monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment on Mreg suppressive capacity were tested from the supernatants of the MLR assays. Results: We demonstrated that induced Mreg with a phenotype of CD14lowCD16-/lowCD80lowCD83-/lowCD86+/hiHLA-DR+/hi were capable of suppressing proliferating human PBMC, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, even at a higher responder:Mreg ratio of 32:1 in a pig-human xenogeneic MLR. The strong suppressive potency of Mreg was further correlated with their upregulated IDO expression and activity. The IDO upregulation of Mreg was associated with an increased production of IFN-γ, an IDO stimulator, by xenoreactive responder cells in the xenogeneic MLR. While no effect on Mreg suppressive potency was detected by addition of the iNOS inhibitor L-NMMA or anti-TGF-β mAb into the MLR assays, inhibition of IDO activity by neutralizing IFN-γ or by IDO inhibitor 1-MT substantially impaired the capacity of Mreg to suppress the xenogeneic response, indicating the importance of upregulated IDO activity in Mreg-mediated suppression of the xenogeneic response in vitro. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that human Mreg are capable of suppressing the xenoimmune response in vitro via IDO-involved mechanism(s), suggesting their potential role as an effective immunomodulatory tool in xenotransplantation.",
keywords = "Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase, Regulatory macrophages, Transplantation tolerance, Xenotransplantation",
author = "Fei Guo and Min Hu and Dandan Huang and Yuanfei Zhao and Benjamin Heng and Gilles Guillemin and Lim, {Chai K.} and Hawthorne, {Wayne J.} and Shounan Yi",
year = "2017",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1111/xen.12326",
language = "English",
volume = "24",
pages = "1--11",
journal = "Xenotransplantation",
issn = "0908-665X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell, Wiley",
number = "5",

}

Human regulatory macrophages are potent in suppression of the xenoimmune response via indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-involved mechanism(s). / Guo, Fei; Hu, Min; Huang, Dandan; Zhao, Yuanfei; Heng, Benjamin; Guillemin, Gilles; Lim, Chai K.; Hawthorne, Wayne J.; Yi, Shounan.

In: Xenotransplantation, Vol. 24, No. 5, e12326, 10.2017, p. 1-11.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Human regulatory macrophages are potent in suppression of the xenoimmune response via indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-involved mechanism(s)

AU - Guo,Fei

AU - Hu,Min

AU - Huang,Dandan

AU - Zhao,Yuanfei

AU - Heng,Benjamin

AU - Guillemin,Gilles

AU - Lim,Chai K.

AU - Hawthorne,Wayne J.

AU - Yi,Shounan

PY - 2017/10

Y1 - 2017/10

N2 - Background: For xenotransplantation to truly succeed, we must develop immunomodulatory strategies to suppress the xenoimmune response but by minimizing immunosuppression over the long term. Regulatory macrophages (Mreg) have been shown to suppress polyclonal T-cell proliferation in vitro and prolong allograft survival in vivo. However, the question of whether they are capable of suppressing xenoimmune responses remains unknown. This study assessed the potential of human Mreg to be used as an effective immunomodulatory method in xenotransplantation. Methods: CD14+ monocytes selected from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) for 7 days with IFN-γ added at day 6 for Mreg induction. Mreg phenotyping was performed by flow cytometric analysis, and the in vitro suppressive function was assessed by mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) using irradiated pig PBMC as the xenogeneic stimulator cells, human PBMC as responder cells, and autologous Mreg as suppressor cells. To assess mRNA expression of Mreg functional molecules indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TGF-β were measured by real-time PCR. Supernatants were collected from the MLR cultures for IDO activity assay by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of the IDO inhibitor 1-D/L-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), iNOS inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA), and anti-IFN-γ or anti-TGF-β monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment on Mreg suppressive capacity were tested from the supernatants of the MLR assays. Results: We demonstrated that induced Mreg with a phenotype of CD14lowCD16-/lowCD80lowCD83-/lowCD86+/hiHLA-DR+/hi were capable of suppressing proliferating human PBMC, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, even at a higher responder:Mreg ratio of 32:1 in a pig-human xenogeneic MLR. The strong suppressive potency of Mreg was further correlated with their upregulated IDO expression and activity. The IDO upregulation of Mreg was associated with an increased production of IFN-γ, an IDO stimulator, by xenoreactive responder cells in the xenogeneic MLR. While no effect on Mreg suppressive potency was detected by addition of the iNOS inhibitor L-NMMA or anti-TGF-β mAb into the MLR assays, inhibition of IDO activity by neutralizing IFN-γ or by IDO inhibitor 1-MT substantially impaired the capacity of Mreg to suppress the xenogeneic response, indicating the importance of upregulated IDO activity in Mreg-mediated suppression of the xenogeneic response in vitro. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that human Mreg are capable of suppressing the xenoimmune response in vitro via IDO-involved mechanism(s), suggesting their potential role as an effective immunomodulatory tool in xenotransplantation.

AB - Background: For xenotransplantation to truly succeed, we must develop immunomodulatory strategies to suppress the xenoimmune response but by minimizing immunosuppression over the long term. Regulatory macrophages (Mreg) have been shown to suppress polyclonal T-cell proliferation in vitro and prolong allograft survival in vivo. However, the question of whether they are capable of suppressing xenoimmune responses remains unknown. This study assessed the potential of human Mreg to be used as an effective immunomodulatory method in xenotransplantation. Methods: CD14+ monocytes selected from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) for 7 days with IFN-γ added at day 6 for Mreg induction. Mreg phenotyping was performed by flow cytometric analysis, and the in vitro suppressive function was assessed by mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) using irradiated pig PBMC as the xenogeneic stimulator cells, human PBMC as responder cells, and autologous Mreg as suppressor cells. To assess mRNA expression of Mreg functional molecules indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TGF-β were measured by real-time PCR. Supernatants were collected from the MLR cultures for IDO activity assay by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of the IDO inhibitor 1-D/L-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), iNOS inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA), and anti-IFN-γ or anti-TGF-β monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment on Mreg suppressive capacity were tested from the supernatants of the MLR assays. Results: We demonstrated that induced Mreg with a phenotype of CD14lowCD16-/lowCD80lowCD83-/lowCD86+/hiHLA-DR+/hi were capable of suppressing proliferating human PBMC, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, even at a higher responder:Mreg ratio of 32:1 in a pig-human xenogeneic MLR. The strong suppressive potency of Mreg was further correlated with their upregulated IDO expression and activity. The IDO upregulation of Mreg was associated with an increased production of IFN-γ, an IDO stimulator, by xenoreactive responder cells in the xenogeneic MLR. While no effect on Mreg suppressive potency was detected by addition of the iNOS inhibitor L-NMMA or anti-TGF-β mAb into the MLR assays, inhibition of IDO activity by neutralizing IFN-γ or by IDO inhibitor 1-MT substantially impaired the capacity of Mreg to suppress the xenogeneic response, indicating the importance of upregulated IDO activity in Mreg-mediated suppression of the xenogeneic response in vitro. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that human Mreg are capable of suppressing the xenoimmune response in vitro via IDO-involved mechanism(s), suggesting their potential role as an effective immunomodulatory tool in xenotransplantation.

KW - Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase

KW - Regulatory macrophages

KW - Transplantation tolerance

KW - Xenotransplantation

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