The Neoproterozoic Era is of widespread geobiological interest because it marks the critical transition from a world of microbes to one where animals become an established feature of the landscape. Much research into this time period has focused on the ventilation of the oceans, as this is widely considered a primary factor driving the diversification of complex, multicellular life. In this study, Proterozoic to Cambrian aged oils from eastern Siberia were analyzed for their hydrocarbon biomarker contents and compound specific carbon isotopes in order to further our understanding of the prevailing environment and its microbial and metazoan communities. Geochemically, these oils are broadly comparable to those of the Ediacaran-Cambrian sedimentary rocks and oils of the South Oman Salt Basin. Organic matter in the source sedimentary rocks included significant contributions from green algae, demosponges and bacteria including cyanobacteria and methanotrophic proteobacteria. Although the ages of the Siberian oils and putative parent source rock intervals are poorly constrained, the geochemical similarities between the Ediacaran Oman Huqf and Nepa-Botuoba-Katanga family of Siberian oil samples are impressive, leading to the inference that their source rocks are coeval. On the other hand, oils from the Baykit High are distinctive, likely older and possibly of Cryogenian age.