Workers who have claimed an association between Fragile X [fra(x)] Syndrome and Hyperactivity and aggressive behavior have done so despite the lack of controlled studies using standard diagnostic criteria. Accordingly, we provided a controlled test of the hypothesis that individuals with the fra(x) Syndrome are more hyperactive and have more symptoms of aggression than other mentally retarded individuals. The test formed part of a study to assess autistic behavior in fra(x) individuals. A sample of fra(x) individuals was obtained from the register of a clinical genetics unit and individually matched for age, sex, and IQ with mentally retarded individuals selected from assessment centres. Fortyfive pairs of fra(x) cases and control individuals were compared on criteria which reflected DSM-III concepts of hyperactivity and on criteria reflecting aggressive behavior. The comparison failed to find a higher prevalence of these symptoms in the fra(x) group. An analysis of the study's statistical power suggested that it is unlikely that the investigation failed to detect a large to medium difference between fra(x) individuals and control individuals in the symptoms investigated.