Hypertension epidemiology in India: emerging aspects

Rajeev Gupta, C. Venkata S. Ram

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose of review: Hypertension is the most important noncommunicable disease risk factor in India with an estimated burden of 200 million persons. Nationwide studies and meta-analyses have reported increasing prevalence. We summarize unique features of hypertension in India. Recent findings: Two recent nationwide studies to determine hypertension prevalence have been performed-Fourth National Family Health Survey and Fourth District Level Health Survey/Annual Health Survey. Age-adjusted hypertension was more in men (24.5%) than women (20.0%). Hypertension is more common in developed states of the country, urban populations and better socioeconomic status individuals. Urban-rural convergence and greater hypertension in younger men and women are unique findings. There is low status of its awareness, treatment and control. Diabetes prevalence is high in hypertension suggesting importance of insulin resistance. Prevalence of resistant hypertension is high. Pharmacoepidemiology studies have reported widespread use of all classes of antihypertensive drugs with increasing use of renin-angiotensin system blockers. There are limited studies focused on genetic epidemiology. Summary: Hypertension is widely prevalent in India with large regional variation, greater prevalence in urban areas and the young. Treatment and control status are low. Diabetes is important comorbidity and resistant hypertension is frequent. There is widespread use of newer antihypertensive drugs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)331-341
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Opinion in Cardiology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019


  • diabetes
  • epidemiology
  • genetic epidemiology
  • high blood pressure
  • hypertension
  • international comparisons
  • pharmacoepidemiology


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