Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is regarded as a high-risk factor for cognitive decline of vascular dementia (VD) as it is conducive to induce beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation. Icariside II (ICS II), a plant-derived flavonoid compound, has showed neuroprotective effect on animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by decreasing Aβ levels. Here, we assessed the effect of ICS II on CCH-induced cognitive deficits and Aβ levels in rats, and the possible underlying mechanisms were also explored. It was disclosed that CCH induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) caused cognitive deficits, neuronal injury and increase of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels in the rat hippocampus, while oral administration of ICS II for 28 days abolished the above deficits in the hippocampus of BCCAO rats. Meanwhile, ICS II significantly decreased the expression of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1), as well as increased the expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 10 (ADAM10) and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE). ICS II also activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α and PPARγ, enhanced the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), levels of Akt and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Together, these findings suggested that ICS II attenuates CCH-induced cognitive deficits by inhibiting the amyloidogenic pathway via involvement of BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling and up-regulation of PPARα and PPARγ in rats.
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- icariside II
- chronic cerebral hypoperfusion
- bilateral common carotid artery occlusion
- peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor