In order to delineate further the molecular evolution of the renin-angiotensin system in vertebrates, angiotensin I (ANG I) has been isolated after incubation of plasma and kidney extracts of emu (Dromiceus novaehollandiae), axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The identified sequences were [Asp1, Val5, Asn9] ANG I in emu, [Asp1, Val5, His 9] ANG I in axolotl, and [Asn1, Val5, Thr 9] ANG I in sea lamprey. These results confirmed the previous findings that tetrapods have Asp and fishes including cyclostomes have Asn at the N-terminus, and that the amino acid residue at position 9 of ANG I was highly variable but, those at other positions were well conserved among different species. Since Asp and Asn are convertible during incubation, angiotensinogen sequences were searched in the genome and/or EST database to determine the N-terminal amino acid residue from the gene. The screening detected 12 tetrapod (10 mammalian, one avian, and one amphibian) and seven teleostean angiotensinogen sequences. Among them, all tetrapods have [Asp 1] ANG except for Xenopus, and all teleosts have [Asn1] ANG, thereby confirming the above rule. Comparison of the vasopressor activity in the eel revealed that [Asn1] ANG I and II were more potent than [Asp1] peptides, which was opposite to the previous results in mammals and birds, in which [Asp1] ANG I and II were more potent. Collectively, the present results support the general rule that tetrapods have [Asp1] ANG and fishes including cyclostomes have [Asn1] ANG. However, an aquatic anuran (Xenopus) has [Asn1] ANG in its gene despite another aquatic urodele (axolotl) has [Asp1] ANG. From the functional viewpoint, homologous [Asn1] ANG was more potent in fish as is homologous [Asp1] ANG in tetrapods, suggesting that ANG II molecule has undergone co-evolution with its receptor during vertebrate phylogeny.
- Axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum
- Emu, Dromiceus novaehollandiae
- Molecular evolution
- Renin-angiotensin system
- Sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus
- Vasopressor effect in eel