Background: Reliable high-throughput microbial pathogen identification in human urine samples is crucial for patients with cystitis symptoms. Currently employed methods are time-consuming and could lead to unnecessary or inadequate antibiotic treatment. Purpose of this study was to assess the potential of mass spectrometry for uropathogen identification from a native urine sample.
Methods: In total, 16 urine samples having more than 105 CFU/mL were collected from clinical outpatients. These samples were analysed using standard urine culture methods, followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing serving as control and here described culture-independent MALDI-TOF/TOF MS method being tested.
Results: Here we present advantages and disadvantages of bottom-up proteomics, using MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry, for culture-independent identification of uropathogens (e.g. directly from urine samples). The direct approach provided reliable identification of bacteria at the genus level in monobacterial samples. Taxonomic identifications obtained by proteomics were compared both to standard urine culture test used in clinics and genomic test based on 16S rRNA sequencing.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that mass spectrometry has great potential as a reliable high-throughput tool for microbial pathogen identification in human urine samples. In this case, the MALDI-TOF/TOF, was used as an analytical tool for the determination of bacteria in urine samples, and the results obtained emphasize high importance of storage conditions and sample preparation method impacting reliability of MS2 data analysis. The proposed method is simple enough to be utilized in existing clinical settings and is highly suitable for suspected single organism infectious etiologies. Further research is required in order to identify pathogens in polymicrobial urine samples.
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- 16S rRNA sequencing
- Pathogen identification
- Sample preparation