Identifying sources and estimating glandular output of salivary TIMP-1

L. Holten-Andersen*, S. Beier Jensen, A. Bardow, J. Harslund, M. Thaysen-Andersen, U. Lademann, P. Autzen Usher, H. Offenberg, P. Højrup, J. Reibel, H. J. Nielsen, N. Brunner, B. Nauntofte

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Objective. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) has been identified as a potential biomarker in diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Since TIMP-1 resides in most tissues and bodily fluids, we evaluated the potential of using saliva to obtain reproducible TIMP-1 measurements in a non-invasive manner. Material and methods. Samples of unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva and saliva collected from individual glands were analysed for TIMP-1 content. A TIMP-1 ELISA was validated for use in saliva testing and the most optimal sampling and handling procedures for reproducible measurements identified. Western blotting and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used for confirmatory analyses. Results. The TIMP-1 ELISA was found suitable for saliva measurements. All saliva secretions contained TIMP-1, but in different concentrations ranging from 2.81 ng/mL in submandibular/ sublingual saliva to 173.88 ng/mL in parotid saliva. TIMP-1 concentrations were influenced to a varying degree by fluctuations in flow. We found the lowest output in submandibular/sublingual saliva stimulated with 0.5 % citric acid (3.56 ng/min) and highest output in chewing-stimulated whole saliva (267.01 ng/min). Conclusion. This study shows that saliva contains authentic TIMP-1, the concentration of which was found to depend on gland type and salivary flow. Stimulated whole saliva is suggested as a reliable and easily accessible source for TIMP-1 determinations in bodily fluids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)548-554
Number of pages7
JournalScandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes


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