Illusions and hallucinations are commonly encountered in both daily life and clinical practice. In this chapter, we review definitions and possible underlying mechanisms of these phenomena and then review what is known about specific conditions that are associated with them, including ophthalmic causes, migraine, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. We then discuss specific syndromes including the Charles Bonnet syndrome, visual snow syndrome, Alice in Wonderland syndrome, and peduncular hallucinosis. The scientific study of illusions and hallucinations has contributed significantly to our understanding of how eye and brain process vision and contribute to perception. Important concepts are the distinction between topologic and hodologic mechanisms underlying hallucinations and the involvement of attentional networks. This chapter examines the various ways in which pathological illusions and hallucinations might arise in relation to the phenomenology and known pathology of the various conditions associated with them.