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A comprehensive investigation into the impact of spectral baseline on temperature prediction in natural marine water samples by Raman spectroscopy is presented. The origin of baseline signals is investigated using principal component analysis and phytoplankton cultures in laboratory experiments. Results indicate that fluorescence from photosynthetic pigments and dissolved organic matter may overlap with the Raman peak for 532 nm excitation and compromise the accuracy of temperature predictions. Two methods of spectral baseline correction in natural waters are evaluated: a traditional tilted baseline correction and a new correction by temperature marker values, with accuracies as high as ± 0.2°C being achieved in both cases.