Fenton oxidation was compared with Fenton oxidation coupled with ultrasonication (Fenton + US) for sludge dewatering. Different Fenton reagent (H2O2, Fe2+) concentrations, pH, and reaction times were studied in different systems on the basis of the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and capillary suction time (CST). It was found that Fenton + US can significantly reduce Fe2+ and H2O2 dosages and reaction times. After ultrasonication of the system at pH 3, with an ultrasonic frequency of 25 kHz and a sound energy density of 100 W/L, the Fe2+, H2O2 dosage, and reaction time were reduced by 66.7, 75.0, and 75.0 %, respectively, when compared with Fenton oxidation at the same dewaterability of sludge. The microstructure of sludge and hydroxyl radical (·OH) density in Fenton oxidation and Fenton + US was further examined. Fenton + US produced more · OH in a sludge system than did individual Fenton oxidation. The concentration of · OH in Fenton + US fell from 79.2 to 6 mg/L over 3.5 h, while the concentration of · OH in Fenton oxidation fell from 59.6 to 1 mg/L over 2 h, thus destroying the microstructure of sludge more effectively. Sludge treated using Fenton + US for 30 min showed a much thinner and looser microstructure.
- Ultrasonic coupling
- Fenton oxidation