Global climate change has had, and will continue to have, many significant impacts on biological and human systems. There are now many studies of climate change impacts on aeroallergens, particularly pollen, including a study demonstrating significant increases in the major allergen content of ragweed pollen as a function of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]). Recent research has also demonstrated more allergenic poison ivy in response to elevated [CO2]. Here, we suggest, for the first time, the potential for global climate change, and, in particular, increased [CO2] and temperature, to have an impact on the allergenicity of plant food allergens such as peanut. Such impacts could have significant impacts on associated allergic diseases, and pose a previously unrecognized threat to human health. There is an urgent need for research on the impacts of climate change on plant food allergens.