Implementation of e-mental health for depression and anxiety: a critical scoping review

Louise A. Ellis*, Hanna Augustsson, Anne I. Grødahl, Chiara Pomare, Kate Churruca, Janet C. Long, Kristiana Ludlow, Yvonne A. Zurynski, Jeffrey Braithwaite

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this review was to scope the growth and development of implementation research of e-mental healthcare programs for anxiety and depression, the research and evaluation tools used, and the specific implementation processes and outcomes examined. A search of four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL) was conducted from January 2000 to January 2019. Of 33 studies identified, most (n = 28) were published in the last five years. Only 10 used an implementation framework to guide implementation or evaluation. Most studies reported on acceptability (n = 28), appropriateness (n = 23), and feasibility (n = 17). Less commonly reported implementation outcomes were fidelity (n = 10) and adoption (n = 7); with penetration (n = 4), sustainability (n = 3), and implementation cost (n = 2) being studied rarely. Of the 21 studies that used surveys to study implementation outcomes, less than half used a previously published survey (n = 9). More rigorous implementation studies, underpinned by strong theory and real-world understanding, are urgently needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)904-920
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Community Psychology
Issue number3
Early online date16 Jan 2020
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


  • anxiety
  • depression
  • e-mental health
  • health care
  • implementation science
  • mental health
  • research translation


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