Implementing ethics in healthcare AI-based applications: a scoping review

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18 Citations (Scopus)


A number of Artificial Intelligence (AI) ethics frameworks have been published in the last 6 years in response to the growing concerns posed by the adoption of AI in different sectors, including healthcare. While there is a strong culture of medical ethics in healthcare applications, AI-based Healthcare Applications (AIHA) are challenging the existing ethics and regulatory frameworks. This scoping review explores how ethics frameworks have been implemented in AIHA, how these implementations have been evaluated and whether they have been successful. AI specific ethics frameworks in healthcare appear to have a limited adoption and they are mostly used in conjunction with other ethics frameworks. The operationalisation of ethics frameworks is a complex endeavour with challenges at different levels: ethics principles, design, technology, organisational, and regulatory. Strategies identified in this review are proactive, contextual, technological, checklist, organisational and/or evidence-based approaches. While interdisciplinary approaches show promises, how an ethics framework is implemented in an AI-based Healthcare Application is not widely reported, and there is a need for transparency for trustworthy AI.
Original languageEnglish
Article number61
Pages (from-to)1-53
Number of pages53
JournalScience and Engineering Ethics
Issue number5
Early online date3 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • AI (Artificial Intelligence)
  • ethics
  • implementation
  • healthcare
  • Machine learning
  • Bioethics
  • Care robots
  • CDSS
  • IAT
  • Ethics
  • AI
  • Healthcare


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