This study examined differences in implicit and explicit memory performance between people with Down syndrome (DS), their siblings, children matched on mental age, and university undergraduates, using olfactory stimuli. The DS and mental-age matched participants were also compared on two tasks of executive function. The data revealed implicit memory for olfactory stimuli. Further, people with DS performed similarly to each control group on the implicit memory task, but performed significantly poorer than all control groups on the explicit memory task. Impairment to executive functioning was identified as a possible cause of this deficit in explicit memory as people with DS performed more poorly than the mental-age matched controls on both tasks of executive function.