Background and Aims: Dietary fat composition is known to modulate circulating lipid and lipoprotein levels. Although supplementation with long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) has been shown to reduce plasma triglyceride levels, the effect of the interactions between LCn-3PUFA and the major dietary fats consumed has not been previously investigated.
Methods: In a randomized controlled parallel design clinical intervention, we examined the effect of diets rich in either saturated fatty acids (SFA) or omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA) on plasma lipid levels and lipoprotein profiles (lipoprotein size, concentration and distribution in subclasses) in subjects with an adequate omega 3 index. Twenty six healthy subjects went through a four-week pre-supplementation period with LCn-3PUFA and were then randomized to diets rich in either n-6PUFA or SFA both supplemented with LCn-3PUFA.
Results: The diet rich in n-6PUFA decreased low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle concentration (−8%, p = 0.013) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) level (−8%, p = 0.021), while the saturated fat rich diet did not affect LDL particle concentration or LDL-C levels significantly. Nevertheless, dietary saturated fatty acids increased LCn-3PUFA in plasma and tissue lipids compared with n-6PUFA, potentially reducing other cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation and clotting tendency. Conclusion Improvement on the omega 3 index of healthy subjects did not alter the known effects of dietary saturated fats and n-6PUFA on LDL profiles.
- Lipoprotein profiles
- Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
- Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
- Saturated fatty acids