In-DEPtH framework: evidence-informed, co-creation framework for the Design, Evaluation and Procurement of Health services

Kenneth Lo*, Jonathan Karnon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)


With a multitude of variables, the combinations of care, health program activities and outcomes are infinite, and this renders improvement efforts to complex health service interventions particularly intricate. Here, we describe a framework that seeks to incorporate research evidence and the multi-faceted considerations of stakeholders, context and resources to co-create sustainable health solutions that improve the health outcomes of patients and communities. This evidence-informed, co-creation framework for the Design, Evaluation and Procurement of Health services (in-DEPtH) is a systematic approach to support health agencies to commission services that are evidence-informed, contextually relevant and stakeholder engaged. The framework consists of several steps from defining the research question, health outcomes and search inclusion criteria, to the synthesis of evidence, and to co-creation and Delphi consultations with stakeholders. In this paper, we describe the various steps of the framework and explain the theoretical methods underpinning the framework. The approach of the framework is context neutral and can be applied to healthcare systems of different countries.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere026482
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2019

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2019. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • health services administration
  • health services research
  • healthcare systems
  • public health systems research
  • translational research


Dive into the research topics of 'In-DEPtH framework: evidence-<i>in</i>formed, co-creation framework for the <i>D</i>esign, <i>E</i>valuation and <i>P</i>rocuremen<i>t</i> of <i>H</i>ealth services'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this