In the water with white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias)

Participants’ beliefs toward cage-diving in Australia

Kirin Apps*, Kay Dimmock, David Lloyd, Charlie Huveneers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)


White shark (Carcharodon carcharias) cage-diving tourism is a controversial activity that provokes emotional and often opposing points of view. With increasing demand for shark tourism since the 1990s, the un- derlying determinants driving this growth in participation remain unclear. This paper adopts a qualitative approach to investigate beliefs underlying tourists’ choice to observe white sharks while cage-diving at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. Elicitation surveys gathered responses from a sample (n = 86) of cage-diving participants. Content analysis of the responses revealed the decision to cage-dive with white sharks is driven by factors including education and the perceived naturalness of the experience. The findings of this study indicate an opportunity for cage-dive operators to provide in situ education and interpretation with potential for increased tourist satisfaction and shark conservation outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-245
Number of pages15
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 3 May 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • education
  • interpretation
  • marine wildlife
  • shark tourism
  • Theory of Planned Behavior

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