Cloning of mini-F DNA segments has led to the identification and mapping of a locus, incD, involved in incompatibility reactions with many IncFI plasmids. The cloned incD locus expressed incompatibility with F, R386, and six other IncFI plasmids but not with ColV3-K30 or pHH507 which lack sequence homology with the incD region. A sequence of 360 bp (48.66-49.02 FKB) was found to be sufficient for expression of incD incompatibility. Multicopy vectors containing incD are compatible with each other, but can be displaced by mini-F plasmids deleted for incD. These results indicate that incD-mediated incompatibility reactions require the presence of replication genes to which incD is normally linked. The degree of incompatibility exercised by incD is moderate compared with that of other inc loci in F, suggesting that incD is involved in an aspect of plasmid maintennce, such as partition, different from the functions of the other inc loci.