Increased hindsight bias in schizophrenia

Todd S. Woodward*, Steffen Moritz, Michelle M. Arnold, Carrie Cuttler, Jennifer C. Whitman, D. Stephen Lindsay

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


An underlying theme common to prominent theoretical accounts of cognition in schizophrenia is that information processing is disproportionately influenced by recently/currently encountered information relative to the influence of previously learned information. In this study, the authors tested this account by using the hindsight bias or knew-it-all-along (KIA) paradigm, which demonstrates that newly acquired knowledge influences recall of past events. In line with the account that patients with schizophrenia display a disproportionately strong influence of recently encountered information relative to the influence of previously learned information, patients displayed a KIA effect that was significantly greater than in controls. This result is discussed in the context of the cognitive underpinnings of the KIA effect and delusion formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)461-467
Number of pages7
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Delusions
  • Hindsight bias
  • Memory
  • Schizophrenia


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