This study investigates the effects of two pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), LPS and zymosan, on the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) immune system. Phenoloxidase and phagocytic activities, total and differential haemocyte frequencies, as well as peroxide and superoxide concentrations were measured after the injection of lipopolysaccharide and zymosan. All of the immunological parameters were induced by both PAMPs. Phenoloxidase (monophenolase and diphenolase) and phagocytic activities, as well as the frequencies of phenoloxidase-positive haemocytes, hyalinocytes and granulocytes in the haemolymph, increased within 24 h of PAMP injection. Values for all of these parameters peaked within 48 h of challenge and began to decrease to levels that were indistinguishable from those of controls within 96 h. The only exception to this pattern was diphenolase activity, which remained elevated for at least 96 h. Control saline injections that lacked PAMPs also induced responses in most of the parameters measured. However, reactions to saline injections were of far lower magnitude compared to those induced by PAMPs. All of the data suggest that the phenoloxidase and phagocytic systems of oysters are inducible components of the Sydney rock oyster immune system, and that induction is primarily due to increased frequencies of specialised haemocytes in the haemolymph.