Both historically and contemporarily, cancer is seen as an inflammatory process. Evidence has emerged in the last two decades that at the molecular level most chronic diseases, including cancer, are caused by a dysregulated inflammatory response. The identification of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappa B and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and their gene products such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, chemokines, cyclooxygenase-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, adhesion molecules and others has provided the molecular basis for the role of inflammation in cancer. Tumor initiation, its progression and metastasis and the failure of immune suppression of tumors all can be attributed in part to chronic and systemic inflammation. Chinese herbs have a long history in both treatment of cancer and suppression of inflammation. This paper looks at recent research on cancer and inflammation and Chinese herbs and compounds, which can be used in the treatment of cancer.