Input, decision, and response factors in picture-word interference

Stephen J. Lupker*, Albert N. Katz

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    85 Citations (Scopus)


    Examined 2 variations of the picture-word analog of the Stroop task in an effort to gain a better understanding of the processes involved in responding to picture-word stimuli. Four stages in this process were outlined and evaluated as potential sources of the interference in these types of tasks. In Exp I with 40 undergraduates, Ss were required to respond "yes" or "no" (vocally or manually) to whether the picture was that of a dog. In Exp II, 18 Ss were asked to respond by naming the picture's semantic category. Overall results indicate that (a) input factors contributed little to the interference observed; (b) in certain situations, some of the interference was due to an interaction of the semantic information from the word and the picture during a decision process; and (c) the response selection and output processes accounted for most of the interference but only in situations in which the word's name was potentially a response. Implications for the study of automatic semantic processing of words are discussed. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)269-282
    Number of pages14
    JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 1981


    • input vs decision vs response selection vs output processes, picture-word interference, college students


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