Elevated uranium dose (4 g kg−1) causes a shift in billabong sediment communities that result in the enrichment of five bacterial species. These taxa include Geobacter, Geothrix and Dyella species, as well as a novel—potentially predatory—Bacteroidetes species, and a new member of class Anaerolineae (Chloroflexi). Additionally, a population of methanogenic Methanocella species was also identified. Genomic reconstruction and metabolic examination of these taxa reveal a host of divergent life strategies and putative niche partitioning. Resistance-nodulation-division heavy metal efflux (RND-HME) transporters are implicated as potential uranium tolerance strategies among the bacterial taxa. Potential interactions, uranium tolerance and ecologically relevant catabolism are presented in a conceptual model of life in this environment.