Due to the environmental and energy crisis, many countries around the world are electrifying transportation, which will significantly change the way the current power grid operates. It is expected that the deployment of future smart grids will allow two-way energy and information flows through plug-and-play operation of small distributed mobile power generators like electric vehicles (EVs) to benefit the prosumers and at the same time make the grid more efficient and robust. However, the issues associated with the energy and information transfer, battery technologies, battery charging schemes, their standards and management need to be addressed in order to achieve the full benefits of EV integration in the future smart grids and internet of energy (IoE) with local renewable generation. As the current grid with existing infrastructure cannot ensure maximum benefits from EVs, this paper reviews the EV technologies, their connectivity, impacts on grid and standards required for the efficient and economic operation of EVs with distributed energy resources in the IoE. The evolution, comparison, and storage potential of EV technologies are thoroughly discussed. This paper also extensively reviews the connectivity issues, for example current EV charging schemes, software tools required to design smart charging, associated challenges, and possible solutions. The architecture of distributed energy management schemes with EVs and the IoE is discussed in detail. Finally, the standards related to EV integration, energy transfers, and safety aspects are provided. Based on the comprehensive review, future directions are put forward which will be useful for researchers and engineers working with EVs.
- Distributed energy management
- Electric vehicle
- Future smart grid
- Internet of energy
- Renewable energy