The advances in recording, editing, and broadcasting multimedia contents in digital form motivate to protect these digital contents from illegal use, such as duplication, manipulation, and redistribution. However, watermarking algorithms are designed to satisfy requirements of applications, as different applications have different concerns. We intend to design a watermarking algorithm for applications which require high embedding capacity and imperceptibility, to maintain the integrity of the host signal as well as embedded information. Reversible watermarking is a promising technique which satisfies our requirements. In this paper, we concentrate on improving the watermark capacity and reducing the perceptual degradation of an image. We investigated the Luo's  additive interpolation-error expansion algorithm and enhanced it by incorporating with two intelligent techniques: genetic algorithm (GA), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Genetic algorithm is applied to exploit the correlation of image pixel values to obtain better estimation of neighboring pixel values, which results in optimal balance between information storage capacity and imperceptibility. Particle swarm optimization (intelligent technique) is also applied for the same purpose. Experimental results show that PSO and GA nearly give the same results, but GA outperforms the PSO. Experimental results also reveal that the proposed strategy outperforms the state of art works in terms of perceptual quality and watermarking payload.
- Genetic algorithm
- Interpolation error expansion
- Particle swarm optimization
- Reversible watermarking