Interactions among the imagination, expertise reversal, and element interactivity effects were investigated in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, less knowledgeable primary school students learning to use a bus timetable produced better performance under study than imagination conditions, but an increase in their experience reversed the result, producing the imagination effect. Experiment 2, in which students were taught to use a temperature line graph, replicated these results and demonstrated that the effects were more likely to be obtained using complex material. It was concluded that learners can engage more successfully in imagination procedures when learning has proceeded sufficiently to permit the information to be processed in working memory and that working memory limitations are of little consequence except when dealing with complex information.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2005|
- Cognitive load theory
- Element interactivity effect
- Expertise reversal effect
- Imagination effect