Interdigital sensing system for kidney health monitoring

S. N. Prabhu*, C. P. Gooneratne, K. A. Hoang, S. C. Mukhopadhyay, A. S. Davidson, G. Liu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

Abstract

The kidney diseases are recognized by high levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) caused by deteriorating glomerular ultrafiltration rate. These diseases are a serious problem and can be seen in individuals of any age and sex but significantly in old age populations. There is generally minor or no symptoms of kidney diseases are seen until significant loss of kidney function and/or disease states related to a kidney (renal) malfunction are worsen in individuals. The creatinine and BUN are considered as biomarkers for kidney healthcare. Ultrasound, CT scan, blood test, sedimentation of urine, the output of urine as well as a urinalysis test are standard techniques for measuring the serum electrolytes, serum creatinine, BUN and kidney function levels. Any of these tests are useful in the diagnosis of kidney diseases and their progression in each stage. They help in treatment methods and decisions associated with drug regiments. These techniques are also helpful in understanding the degree of improvement/ declining status in diseased kidney healthcare after medical treatment. Since the noticeable changes in kidney disease stages (maintenance/ progression/ improvement) are very slow, therefore most of the drugs which are prescribed are useful in long term care of kidney health than that of faster healing of diseased stage. Due to the slower rate of kidney healthcare progression, the ultrasound and/or CT scan studies are needed after longer time intervals; where a medical practitioner can be able to distinguish the difference between previous and current kidney health status. Although the daily formation of the creatinine and BUN are constant, the noticeable changes in creatinine and BUN are visible in two weeks. That is why the detection and quantifying of biomarkers such as creatinine and BUN are of high significance. The level of BUN is also linked with other organ disease conditions but the rise in serum creatinine levels is specifically linked with kidney disease. Therefore, serum creatinine levels are highly useful with the ultrasound and/or CT scan to identify loss of kidney function and kidneys’ subsequent response to the drug regiments. Frequent visits to pathology labs are necessary but also inconvenient for kidney patients. Currently, there is the unavailability of techniques to detect levels of creatinine at home. Although blood testing is standardised for measurement of serum creatinine, it is invasive as it involves venepuncture. This method is time consuming, costly, requires pathology experts in venepuncture as well as for performing sample analysis, and the results are complicated for a patient to understand from home. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a home-based electrochemical biosensing detection system which is rapid, cost-effective, easily operable, interpretation and internet friendly Point-of-Care (PoC) diagnostic device sensing system. The PoC device can establish a trustable domestic measuring profile for kidney disease patients. The device can be utilised as a prognostic as well as a prophylactic care modem at a patient understanding level, that indicates the frequent minor changes in levels of serum creatinine thus helpful in kidney healthcare. This will help as an indicator to the patient and a medical practitioner in detecting changes in serum creatinine at early-stage thus helpful in better revival. In current work, we would like to describe our research on the development of highly specific polymer for the detection of creatinine from heat-inactivated serum samples and the making of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)-based sensing system. The Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP)-EIS combined system is further developed to make a home operable and internet connectable PoC diagnostic device and it has been cross-verified by using commercially developed Creatinine Colorimetric Assay Kit.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInterdigital sensing system for kidney health monitoring
EditorsSubhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Boby George, Joyanta Kumar Roy, Tarikul Islam
Place of PublicationCham, Switzerland
PublisherSpringer, Springer Nature
Chapter11
Pages267-309
Number of pages43
ISBN (Electronic)9783030626846
ISBN (Print)9783030626839
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Publication series

NameSmart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation
PublisherSpringer
Volume36
ISSN (Print)2194-8402
ISSN (Electronic)2194-8410

Keywords

  • kidney
  • Diagnostic equipment

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