Interexaminer reliability of the deltoid and psoas muscle test

Henry Pollard*, Bronwyn Lakay, Frances Tucker, Brett Watson, Peter Bablis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To determine if 2 practitioners of differing skill levels could reliably agree on the presence of a weak or strong deltoid or psoas muscle. Study Design: Interexaminer reliability study of 2 common muscle tests. Main Outcome Measures: Cohen κ (unweighted) scores, observer agreement, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The results showed that an experienced and a novice practitioner have good agreement when using repeated muscle test procedures on the deltoid (κ 0.62) and the psoas (κ 0.67). Conclusions: The manual muscle test procedures using the anterior deltoid or psoas showed good interexaminer reliability when used by an experienced and a novice user. These techniques may be used between practitioners in multidoctor assessment/management programs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)52-56
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2005


  • Chiropractic
  • Deltoid Muscle
  • Muscle Test
  • Psoas Muscle
  • Reliability


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