Interleukin-13 protects against experimental autoimmune myocarditis by regulating macrophage differentiation

Daniela Cihakova*, Jobert G. Barin, Marina Afanasyeva, Miho Kimura, De Lisa Fairweather, Michael Berg, Monica V. Talor, G. Christian Baldeviano, Sylvia Frisancho, Kathleen Gabrielson, Djahida Bedja, Noel R. Rose

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report here that interleukin (IL)-13 protects BALB/c mice from myocarditis, whether induced by peptide immunization or by viral infection. In contrast to mild disease in IL-4 knockout (KO) BALB/c mice, IL-13 KO BALB/c mice developed severe coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced autoimmune myocarditis and myocarditogenic peptide-induced experimental autoimmune myocarditis. Such severe disease was characterized by increased cardiac inflammation, increased total intracardiac CD45+ leukocytes, elevated anti-cardiac myosin autoantibodies, and increased cardiac fibrosis. Echocardiography revealed that IL-13 KO mice developed severe dilated cardiomyopathy with impaired cardiac function and heart failure. Hearts of IL-13 KO mice had increased levels of the proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, interferon-γ, transforming growth factor-β1, and IL-4 as well as histamine. The hallmark of the disease in IL-13 KO mice was the up-regulation of T-cell responses. CD4+ T cells were increased in IL-13 KO hearts both proportionally and in absolute number. Splenic T cells from IL-13 KO mice were highly activated, and myosin stimulation additionally increased T-cell proliferation. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T-cell numbers were decreased in the spleens of IL-13 KO mice. IL-13 deficiency led to decreased levels of alternatively activated CD206+ and CD204+ macrophages and increased levels of classically activated macrophages. IL-13 KO mice had increased caspase-1 activation, leading to increased production of both IL-1β and IL-18. Therefore, IL-13 protects against myocarditis by modulating monocyte/macrophage populations and by regulating their function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1195-1208
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Pathology
Volume172
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2008
Externally publishedYes

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