Internalising problems and the effects of peer ostracism on children's primary needs

David J. Hawes*, Lisa Zadro, Rose Iannuzzelli, Alexandra Godwin, Georgia Macnevin, Mark R. Dadds, Brendan Griffiths, Rick Richardson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to examine associations between ostracism, internalising problems, and threat to primary needs (belonging, control, self-esteem, meaningful existence) in children (N = 165, M age = 9 years). Ostracism was simulated experimentally using the Cyberball paradigm - a computer-based ball-throwing game - and threats to primary needs were indexed using a modified version of the primary needs questionnaire (PNQ-C; Hawes et al., 2012). Overall, children with greater internalising problems reported greater need-threat following Cyberball. Importantly however, in the domain of 'belonging', the relationship between internalising problems and need-threat was moderated by inclusionary status. Specifically, children with high levels of internalising problems exhibited greater need-threat than children low in internalising problems when included by peers; yet following ostracism, children with high internalising problems were no longer distinguishable from those with low internalising problems in terms of threat to belonging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-45
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Developmental Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • children
  • Cyberball
  • internalising problems
  • Ostracism
  • primary needs


Dive into the research topics of 'Internalising problems and the effects of peer ostracism on children's primary needs'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this