People spend increasing amounts of time at home, yet the indoor home environment remains understudied in terms of potential exposure to toxic trace metals. We evaluated trace metal (and metalloid) concentrations (As, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and health risks in indoor dust from homes from 35 countries, along with a suite of potentially contributory residential characteristics. The objective was to determine trace metal source inputs and home environment conditions associated with increasing exposure risk across a range of international communities. For all countries, enrichments compared to global crustal values were Zn > Pb > Cu > As > Cr > Ni; with the greatest health risk from Cr, followed by As > Pb > Mn > Cu > Ni > Zn. Three main indoor dust sources were identified, with a Pb-Zn-As factor related to legacy Pb sources, a Zn-Cu factor reflecting building materials, and a Mn factor indicative of natural soil sources. Increasing home age was associated with greater Pb and As concentrations (5.0 and 0.48 mg/kg per year of home age, respectively), as were peeling paint and garden access. Therefore, these factors form important considerations for the development of evidence-based management strategies to reduce potential risks posed by indoor house dust. Recent findings indicate neurocognitive effects from low concentrations of metal exposures; hence, an understanding of the home exposome is vital.
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- trace metals
- human health risk