Objective: Scientific and clinical interest in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing worldwide. This article presents data from a cross-national workshop and survey related to questions of variability in diagnostic and, particularly, treatment procedures. Methods: Representatives of nine nations (Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom), plus the United States, who attended a 2010 workshop on ADHD, responded to a survey that addressed diagnostic procedures for ADHD; treated prevalence of medication approaches, as well as psychosocial interventions; types of medications and psychosocial treatments in use; payment systems; beliefs and values of the education system; trends related to adult ADHD; and cultural and historical attitudes and influences related to treatment. Results: Use of both medication and psychosocial treatment for ADHD varies widely within and across nations. More expensive long-acting formulations of medications are becoming more widespread. Nations with socialized medical care provide a wide array of evidence-based interventions. Economic, historical, and political forces and cultural values are related to predominant attitudes and practices. Strong antipsychiatry and antimedication voices remain influential in many nations. Conclusions: There is considerable variation in implementation of care for ADHD. Recognition of the social context of ADHD is an important step in ensuring access to evidence-based interventions for this prevalent, chronic, and impairing condition.