Interpersonal synergies

Michael A. Riley, Michael J. Richardson, Kevin Shockley, Verónica C. Ramenzoni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

290 Citations (Scopus)
14 Downloads (Pure)


We present the perspective that interpersonal movement coordination results from establishing interpersonal synergies. Interpersonal synergies are higher-order control systems formed by coupling movement system degrees of freedom of two (or more) actors. Characteristic features of synergies identified in studies of intrapersonal coordination – dimensional compression and reciprocal compensation – are revealed in studies of interpersonal coordination that applied the uncontrolled manifold approach and principal component analysis to interpersonal movement tasks. Broader implications of the interpersonal synergy approach for movement science include an expanded notion of mechanism and an emphasis on interaction-dominant dynamics.
Original languageEnglish
Article number38
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2011. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • interpersonal coordination
  • synergy
  • cross-recurrence quantification analysis
  • principal component analysis
  • joint action


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