Important questions remain regarding the geodynamic evolution of Earth during the Archean Eon. They include the convective regime of the mantle, the heat budget and the distribution of heat within the mantle and the crust, the nature of lithosphere tectonics, and the formation, stabilization, and preservation of continents. Archean tectonics must be considered in the context of deeper mantle processes, notably, convection. Other important issues include the petrogenesis of Archean crust in a geodynamic regime different from today's. These issues are of significance for the nature of early life as well as for the physico-chemical environments where early life evolved. In this monograph, authors address important geodynamic, tectonic, petrological, and biochemical questions, using advanced numerical and analytical modeling and extensive studies of the rock record based on new and compiled geological and geophysical data.