Invasive, atypical and aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas

Aydin Sav*, Fabio Rotondo, Luis V. Syro, Antonio Di Ieva, Michael D. Cusimano, Kalman Kovacs

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


Aggressive pituitary adenomas have a high risk of recurrence, a lack of therapeutic response, and resistance to conventional treatment. So far, no satisfactory biomarkers are available for predicting their behavior. Some specific pituitary adenoma histotypes are more prone to follow an aggressive behavior. Pituitary carcinomas are rare and show cerebrospinal and/or systemic metastasis. They have worse prognosis than aggressive adenomas, and radiation is of limited use in their treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-104
Number of pages6
JournalEndocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Aggressive pituitary adenoma
  • Atypical adenoma
  • Diagnosis
  • Invasive adenoma
  • Noninvasive adenoma
  • Pituitary carcinoma


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