Based on social cognitive theory, we tested the effects of model type (mastery vs. coping) and form of practice (physical, imagery, or none) on performance expectations (self-efficacy and perceived task difficulty) and balance on a stabilometer task. After obtaining baseline measures, 78 participants viewed either mastery or coping demonstrations of the task and practiced according to their allocated condition for 3 minutes. Following practice, all measures were assessed for a second time. Physical practice improved actual performance more than imagery and no practice. In support of social cognitive theory, physical and imagery practice raised self-efficacy beliefs, but only physical practice made the task seem easier to perform. Model type did not influence performance. We show that inflated estimates of physical ability following imagery, which are discordant with one's actual ability (estimation inflation), are not based on false perceptions of task difficulty. Our data concur with other studies that report no advantage of using a coping model over a mastery model when improving performance of a novel motor task.
|Number of pages
|International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
|Published - Sept 2011
- observational practice
- stabilometer balancing