Isolating the effect of virtual reality based exposure therapy for agoraphobia: a comparative trial

Eric Malbos*, Ronald M. Rapee, Manolya Kavakli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The isolated effect of Virtual Reality Based Exposure Therapy (VRBET) for agoraphobia was analyzed through a comparative trial involving the first 10 agoraphobic participants. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups: VREBT only and VREBT combined with cognitive therapy. All the required Virtual Environments (VE) were created with an inexpensive Game Level Editor (GLE). Outcome measures supported the immersive effect of the VEs. Questionnaires, behavioral tests and physiological measures indicated a positive effect of VRBET alone. The addition of cognitive therapy to VREBT did not appear to generate any significant differences. Consequences for future research and practice are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAnnual review of cybertherapy and telemedicine 2011
Subtitle of host publicationadvanced technologies in behavioral, social and neurosciences
EditorsBrenda K. Wiederhold, Stéphane Bouchard, Giuseppe Riva
Place of PublicationAmsterdam, Netherlands
PublisherIOS Press
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781607507666
ISBN (Print)9781607507659
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Publication series

NameStudies in Health Technology and Informatics
PublisherIOS PRESS
ISSN (Print)0926-9630


  • Virtual Reality
  • exposure therapy
  • virtual environments
  • agoraphobia
  • cognitive therapy
  • game level editors

Cite this