Kynurenines, gender and neuroinflammation; showcase schizophrenia

J. de Bie, C. K. Lim, G. J. Guillemin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Schizophrenia has a clear sexual dimorphism in age of onset and progression. The underlying mechanisms of this dimorphism are not known, but may be found in the interactions of sex hormones with the tryptophan catabolising kynurenine pathway. Schizophrenia is associated with general inflammation and disruption of glutamatergic and dopaminergic signalling. Metabolites of the kynurenine pathway have been shown to be immunomodulatory and have effects on glutamatergic and dopaminergic signalling. This review discusses the currently available literature on sex hormones and their effect on the kynurenine pathway in the context of the glutamatergic, dopaminergic and immunological features of schizophrenia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)285-294
Number of pages10
JournalNeurotoxicity Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2016


  • Gender
  • Inflammation
  • Kynurenine pathway
  • Schizophrenia
  • Tryptophan


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