Language learning and teaching beyond the classroom: an introduction to the field

Phil Benson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

124 Citations (Scopus)


In a review of research on the effectiveness of formal foreign language instruction, Ellis (2008: 855) observes that acquisition probably proceeds most rapidly through a combination of form-focused instruction and exposure to the target language. He also suggests that in studies that have compared classroom learners with ʼnaturalistic’ learners, we can not be sure whether the advantages for classroom learners are due to formal instruction or access to comprehensible input in classroom language. While the jury remains out on the effectiveness of language instruction, the wise language learner might be well advised to seek out a combination of instruction and exposure to language input (Krashen 1985), as well as opportunities to produce language output (Swain 1985).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBeyond the language classroom
EditorsPhil Benson, Hayo Reinders
Place of PublicationBasingstoke, UK
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9780230306790
ISBN (Print)9780230272439
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2011
Externally publishedYes


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