Lower blood lead averages in mining communities, compared with other child exposure settings, e.g., innercity areas of the United States and smelter communities, have been attributed to lower bioavailability of lead to children in the mining areas. Direct supporting evidence of the lower bioavailability has, however, generally been lacking. Elevated blood lead levels for approximately 85% of children with > 10 μg/dl have been reported from the Broken Hill mining community in Australia. Lead isotope, optical, and scanning electron microscope analyses on the lead species from soils and dusts show them to be derived mainly from weathered ore body material. Solubility tests using 0.1 M HCl on the −53+38 μm fraction of soil and dust show the lead species to have a high degree of bioavailability. Ingestion of soil and dust, either directly or via mouthing activity, is the main source and pathway for elevated blood lead in children from this community.