Leaf-litter inputs from an invasive nitrogen-fixing tree influence organic-matter dynamics and nitrogen inputs in a Hawaiian river

Richard A. MacKenzie, Tracy N. Wiegner, Frances Kinslow, Nicole Cormier, Ayron M. Strauch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


We examined how invasion of tropical riparian forests by an exotic N-fixing tree (Falcataria moluccana) affects organic-matter dynamics in a Hawaiian river by comparing early stages of leaf-litter breakdown between the exotic F. moluccana and native Metrosideros polymorpha trees. We examined early decomposition stages because of low leaf-litter retention rates (<20 d) that result from the flashy nature of tropical Pacific Island streams. Leaf breakdown rates, fungal biomass, and invertebrate abundances were 40, 120, and 30% greater, respectively, for F. moluccana than M. polymorpha leaves. Leaf-litter breakdown was largely a result of stream flow and to a lesser extent fungal colonization. Invertebrates were not an important factor in leaf-litter breakdown. Initial tannin content, leaf C/N, and toughness were important intrinsic factors inhibiting leaf breakdown and fungal colonization. Regression analyses between remaining N content (%) and ash-free dry mass of leaf litter revealed that the early stages of F. moluccana leaf-litter breakdown are a source of N to streams invaded by F. moluccana and contribute a conservatively estimated 2.1 to 5.7% to the available total dissolved N pool. Direct input of F. moluccana leaf litter influences early stages of leaf-litter breakdown in tropical streams with low leaf-litter retention rates. Direct input of leaf litter also contributes somewhat to N inputs, but subsurface flows through N-rich soils of F. moluccana-invaded riparian forests probably are a greater source.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1036-1052
Number of pages17
JournalFreshwater Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Falcataria moluccana
  • invasive species
  • leaf litter decomposition
  • nitrogen fixing
  • tropical stream

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