Learning from errors in a driving simulation: Effects on driving skill and self-confidence

K. Ivancic, B. Hesketh*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

184 Citations (Scopus)


Two experiments investigated the effect of making errors during training (error training) on a driving simulator versus learning from examples of errors (guided error training) on driving skill and confidence. Experiment 1 indicated that compared with errorless learning (where participants drove through a training run not designed to elicit errors), error training led to significantly better transfer to driving tests that were analogous to those situations encountered in training and more effective use of strategies for coping with a novel driving situation. Error training also reduced self-confidence in driving skill at the end of training relative to errorless learning. Experiment 2 provided weak evidence of the superiority of guided error training over errorless learning (where the driver in the video did not make any errors) on analogous tests, and no evidence of transfer to a novel test. Furthermore, guided error training did not influence self-confidence in driving skill. The potential value of driving simulators in providing active processing during driver training is discussed, along with the effects of passive and active exposure to errors on driver confidence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1966-1984
Number of pages19
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Driver confidence
  • Driver training
  • Driving simulator
  • Errors


Dive into the research topics of 'Learning from errors in a driving simulation: Effects on driving skill and self-confidence'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this